Kenneth R. Bowling

Kenneth R. Bowling is coeditor of The Documentary History of the First Federal Congress, 1789–1791, and the author of The Creation of Washington, D.C.: The Idea and Location of the American Capital.

Listed in: History · American History · Political Science




Establishing Congress · The Removal to Washington, D.C., and the Election of 1800
Edited by Kenneth R. Bowling and Donald R. Kennon

Establishing Congress: The Removal to Washington, D.C., and the Election of 1800 focuses on the end of the 1790s, when, in rapid succession, George Washington died, the federal government moved to Washington, D.C., and the election of 1800 put Thomas Jefferson and the Democratic-Republican Party in charge of the federal government.

“These essays remind us how crucial the election of 1800 was and emphasize the significance of removing the capital to Washington, D.C., for American politics and culture.... Political history survives. These essays help explain why.”

The Historian




The House and Senate in the 1790s · Petitioning, Lobbying, and Institutional Development
Edited by Kenneth R. Bowling and Donald R. Kennon

Amid the turbulent swirl of foreign intrigue, external and internal threats to the young nation’s existence, and the domestic partisan wrangling of the 1790s, the United States Congress solidified its role as the national legislature. The ten essays in The House and Senate in the 1790s demonstrate the mechanisms by which this bicameral legislature developed its institutional identity.

"In framing a government which is to be administered by men over men, the great difficulty lies in this: You must first enable the government to control the governed; and in the next place, oblige it to control itself."

James Madison, Federalist No. 51




Neither Separate Nor Equal · Congress in the 1790s
Edited by Kenneth R. Bowling and Donald R. Kennon

Scholars today take for granted the existence of a “wall of separation” dividing the three branches of the federal government. Neither Separate nor Equal: Congress in the 1790s demonstrates that such lines of separation among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, however, were neither so clearly delineated nor observed in the first decade of the federal government's history.




Inventing Congress · Origins and Establishment of the First Federal Congress
Edited by Kenneth R. Bowling and Donald R. Kennon

On March 4, 1789, New York City's church bells pealed, cannons fired, and flags snapped in the wind to celebrate the date set for the opening of the First Federal Congress. In many ways the establishment of Congress marked the culmination of the American Revolution as the ship of state was launched from the foundation of the legislative system outlined in Article I of the Constitution.